I. BACKGROUND OF RESEARCH

Intonation is when, why and how a speaker chooses to raise or lower or sustain the pitch of her or his voice at particular points while speaking. Standard English intonations can be divided into six general types. They are falling, rising, falling-rising, rising-falling, take-off, and level. Intonation makes speech meaningful. English intonation adds the meaning of an utterance in two ways:
• It shows the relationship of words within and between sentences;
• It tells something about the feeling of the speaker.
The main purpose of language is to deliver our message. It can be for example through either stress or intonation. What I am going to examine is about intonation since it is very important to indicate how the speaker feels about what he is saying, or how he personally feels at that moment. Even if you pronounce each word clearly, if your intonation patterns are non-standard, your meaning will probably not be clear. More specifically, I am going to talk about the type of intonation. My object to be examined is a movie entitled P.S. I Love You. My consideration using this movie as my object is because this movie contains many emotion feelings so it can help much in my mini research related to the intonation.
The setting of this movie takes place in western (Ireland and United States) in which both of these countries use English as their daily language. It means they use standard English intonation to communicate each other. These intonations (based on types) can be used to express feeling of the speaker like happiness, sadness, surprise, annoyance, anger, and so on.

II. RESEARCH PROBLEM

I observe P.S. I Love You based on these question:
1. How many types of intonation that found in the film?
2. Which conversation belongs to each types of intonation?
3. What is the most dominant type of intonation that appears in the conversation?

III. REVIEW OF RELATED THEORY

INTONATION (especially the type of it)
There are many types of suprasegmental or also well known as prosodic feature. However, phoneticians talk of five major types of it that exist in almost all languages of the world. Yet, not all languages have same suprasegmental. Therefore, the languages of the world make their own choices of it.
One of the types of suprasegmental is intonation. Intonation is when, why and how a speaker chooses to raise or lower or sustain the pitch of her or his voice at particular points while speaking. Intonation makes speech meaningful. English intonation adds the meaning of an utterance in two ways:
• It shows the relationship of words within and between sentences;
• It tells something about the feeling of the speaker.
In other words, different pitches may indicate different meanings for the same utterance. Different pitches help us express our feelings: happiness, sadness, surprise, annoyance, anger, and so on.
In general, English uses six different forms of intonation patterns. They are falling, rising, falling-rising, rising-falling, take-off, and level. Nevertheless, I am only going to talk four types of it. Here they are:

1. Falling Intonation
Falling intonation is statements end in a falling tone, which signals the end of an utterance. It is characterized by a clear fall of the pitch after the stressed syllable of the last content word towards the end of the sentence. In other words, the pitch will have to fall after the stressed syllable of the last content word. Falling intonation is used in many situations. Statements, WH-questions, and confirmatory tag questions (i.e., tag questions in which you expect the listener to confirm what you say) all use falling intonation. Statements are those sentences that provide information for the listener. They may be either positive or negative. They may sometimes be imperative. All of these forms of statements require falling intonation.

2. Rising Intonation
Rising intonation is characterized by a clear rise of the pitch after the stressed syllable of the last content word of the sentence onwards. In other words, the pitch will have to rise after the stressed syllable of the last content word. Rising intonation is used in yes-no questions, repeated questions, question-statements, and tag questions. English clearly differentiates between two types of questions: WH-questions and yes-no questions. Yes-no questions are simply those that require a yes or a no answer (with perhaps a little further elaboration, depending on the question.) In English, yes-no questions are often differentiated from question-word questions (also called information questions or WH-questions) in terms of intonation. Yes-no questions require rising intonation.

3. Failing-Rising Intonation
Falling-rising intonation is characterized by a combination of a fall followed by arise. Falling-rising intonation is often used for soothing and politeness. When small children feel uneasy, for example, parents use falling-rising intonation to soothe them. Soothing refers to statements that make pain or discomfort less severe. Falling-rising intonation pattern is sometimes used for pleading. Pleading refers to statements in which the speaker makes an earnest or urgent entreaty, often in emotional terms.

4. Take-off Intonation
Take-off intonation is characterized by a take-off pattern after the most important contrastive stress of the sentence. In other words, the speaker begins with a regular or level tone and then gradually raises the pitch (similar to the way airplanes run along the runway before take-off). The point at which the pitch comes to a full rising pattern depends on the speaker’s choice. This is normally the point the speaker finds most important. Take-off intonation is often used in statements with negatively-charged emotions.

Taken from: An Introduction To Phonetics (2005), page 119-124.

IV. RESEARCH RESULT AND CONCLUSION

Below is the result of my research about intonation (especially the four types of it) based on P.S. I Love You film (the exact scene is showed in the bracket):

1. Falling Intonation
Some parts of the conversations that use falling intonations are:
a. Statement
• “Noꜜ, noꜜ, I did itꜜ, I did itꜜ.” (01:54)
• “I’m not going anywhereꜜ.” (09:47)
• “Gerry Kennedy did not want a lot of wordsꜜ.” (15:07)
• “He prefers musicꜜ.” (15:10)
• “He was a unique young manꜜ.” (15:12)
• “His life may be over for now but we can still hear himꜜ.” (15:22)
b. WH question
• “What if it doesn’t work outꜜ?” (04:14)
• “What if we have to leave hereꜜ?” (04:16)
• “What do you meanꜜ?” (06:18)
• “What’s that smellꜜ?” (28:08)
• “What’s thisꜜ?” (29:42)
c. Confirmatory tag question
• “I did something, rightꜜ?” (01:41)
• “I did something bad, rightꜜ?” (01:43)
• “You still here, rightꜜ?” (40:16)
• “I think you get a quite enjoy this lost, don’t youꜜ?” (01:27:52)

2. Rising Intonation
Some parts of the conversations that use rising intonations are:
a. Yes-no question
• “Do you want have a babyꜛ?” (05:24)
• “Are we finished now, loveꜛ?” (07:30)
• “May I come backꜛ?” (07:33)
• “Have you got the keyꜛ?” (13:59)
• “Am I lateꜛ?” (14:30)
• “Are you single, Mattꜛ?” (17:30)
• “Are you gayꜛ?” (17:32)
• “Can I get you anythingꜛ?” (18:44)
• “Are you drunkꜛ?” (27:57)
• “Do you wanna beꜛ?” (28:00)
• “Have you got itꜛ?” (33:12)
• “Do you Holly Kennedyꜛ?” (42:21)
• “Did you take a medicine todayꜛ?” (51:30)
• “Are you Barbaraꜛ?” (58:16)
• “Yes, May I help youꜛ? (58:17)
• “Do you think we’ll have seen dad againꜛ?” (01:49:46)
b. Statement to change into question
• “Ha ha ha, each pay checkꜛ?” (03:34)
• “He knew that I come visit youꜛ?” (01:24:11)
• “Oh my God, this is the parkꜛ?” (01:26:54)

3. Falling-Rising Intonation
Some parts of the conversations that use falling-rising intonations are:
a. Soothing
• “Toꜜ my motherꜛ!” (02:49)
• “You told my motherꜜ I didn’t want childrenꜛ!” (03:01)
• “Kiss myꜜ, in Englishꜛ!” (07:07)
• “Shut upꜜꜛ!” (41:23)
“You shut upꜜꜛ!” (41:23)

4. Take-Off Intonation
Part of the conversation that uses take-off intonation is:
• “What did you want, Hollyꜜ? Whatꜛ?” (06:28)

In conclusion, there are four types of standard English intonations that found in the movie P.S. I Love You. The mostly appeared type of intonation in this film is rising intonation, especially in yes-no questions. It is because there are many conversations that need to know simply yes or no question.

(Hanifa Rahmawati. Sastra Inggris 2010. Universitas Brawijaya)

REFERENCES

Birjandi, Parvis (PhD) and Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali (PhD) (2005). An Introduction to Phonetics. Iran: Zabankadeh Publications. From http://www.scribd.com/doc/10169673/71/TYPES-OF-INTONATION, accessed date May 31, 2012
http://www.5minuteenglish.com/jun12.htm, accessed date May 31, 2012
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/574738/suprasegmental, accessed date May 31, 2012
http://www.englishforums.com/English/RisingFallingIntonation/vqgcx/post.htm, accessed date May 31, 2012